The fundamental goal for the design of a crushing plant is an installation that meets the required production requirements, operates at competitive cost, complies with today's tough environmental regulations, and can be built at a reasonable price despite the rising costs of equipment, energy and construction labor. These can include the owner's engineering staff, safety personnel, operations and maintenance personnel, equipment manufacturers, and the engineering consultant. Ideally, the consultant combines his knowledge and experience with an understanding of all parties' needs, to provide a balanced, workable, safe and economic plant design.
Direct Costs. The largest primary gyratory crushers cost US $2 million or more, while overall crushing plant costs can be as high as $18 million. It's necessary therefore to estimate crusher installation costs based on equipment costs plus the following direct costs, including construction contractor indirects: Earthworks, Mechanical, Concrete, Electrical, Structural steel, Instrumentation, Architectural Indirect Costs. Indirect costs can fall within a range of 40 to 60% of the direct costs, and include: Construction indirects, Startup and commissioning, Construction equipment, Freight, Spare parts/first fill, Taxes/duties, Engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM), Owner's costs (relocation, hiring and training personnel, permits, licensing fees, etc).
In addition to the above, a contingency to cover unforeseen costs will be in the range of 10 to 20% of the sum of the direct and indirect costs. The designer must be aware of the project-specific costs of all such elements, so that he can monitor costs and promote methods of reducing total installation costs. In some locations, for example, labor and material costs could make a gabion wall more expensive than a poured concrete wall, which has minimal structural backfill.
Ore characteristics are a critical element in both crusher selection and plant design. Dry ores require greater provisions for dust suppression and collection, including dust enclosures around screens, sealing on conveyor skirts, and vacuum and wash-down systems. Wet, sticky ores can plug chutes, reduce surge capacity, and decrease the live storage capacity of bins and silos. To address this problem, chutes must be easily accessible for clean-up, and large feeder openings must be provided for bins, silos and tunnels. If it is practical to obtain representative ore samples, it is prudent to have testwork conducted to establish ore flow properties, which will influence design parameters.
At virtually all mines, ore characteristics change over time, and it can be costly to 'design in' the optimal flexibility required to handle such changes. Some owners stipulate that initial capital investment be kept to a minimum, with design modifications paid for out of the operating budget. This is not always easy to achieve.
Safety and Environment
Safety must be designed into all mining facilities. North American mines must comply with local and national regulations such as OSHA, MSHA, the Mines Act and the WCB. The modern plant includes safety guards around all moving equipment, and emergency pull-cords on both sides of any conveyors with personnel access. The maintenance department and safety officer must keep these safeguards in working order. Ongoing safety training of plant personnel is imperative, and is considered to be one of the most vital and monitored feature of most mining operations.
Dust emissions must comply with the latest regulations for the jurisdiction. Designers must make provisions for the installation of dust abatement, suppression or collection equipment. Spillages from feeders, chutes and conveyors must be minimized. Spill collection can be 'designed in' on feeder installations; chute designs can minimize spillage at receiving and discharge points; and conveyor belts can be widened to be more forgiving (e.g., skirting internal back-to-back width can be reduced to allow the belt more side travel.) Skirting should be extended a minimum of three belt widths past the load point. Rules for conveyor and load point design should be used for guidance only, with transfers custom-designed to suit a particular project. It goes without saying that clean plants have lower operating costs. Crushers, screens and dust-collection fans all contribute to high noise levels. Air-cooled lubrication systems are not only noisy, but often leak oil. Well-balanced, choke-fed crushers, dustenclosed screens and dust collector fans with silencers can keep noise levels under control. Recirculating water can be used to cool crusher lubrication systems.
As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as Mobile crushing station, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.
If you're interested in mining machinery such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, ball mill, Raymond mill, snad maker, we believe that Henan Hongxing Machinery is your nice choice.
- Author Articles
- More From This AuthorStrong global demand for minerals and other commodities promises to fuel demand for mining equipment for years to come. This is positive news for domestic steel suppliers, not just because of the large...According to introducing, xinjiang tianshan metallogenic belt in xinjiang is one of the three major metallogenic belt, has found that all kinds of mineral resources. According to relevant for...Rising demand for such vehicles indicates rapidly increasing activity in the mining sector. 'Since early 2010, the mining sector has steadily gathered momentum and this has had a positive impact on the...From mining machinery industry 2000 ~ 2009 fixed assets steady growth can explain, mining machinery industry return on capital is higher than the average return on assets, is worth the investment of social...It is because of China machinery industry in general are still in the development stage in vulgar, machinery industry unit product comprehensive energy consumption than to the high number of developed...
- Related Articles
- Related ArticlesWell, as the name suggests an animated explainer video is simply a video that explains your product or service by the use of animation and graphics. As per reports in the modern internet market, it can be...QR codes are everywhere these days, and smart business owners are finding ways to stand out from the herd. Custom QR code design software plays a major role in this marketing niche. QR codes with company logos...State and federal labor laws are legislations that have been passed by the government in order to ensure that the employees of any organization are taken care of well. This provides them with a sense of...A chiropractor is a person who uses various techniques to manually adjust parts of the human spinal cord and other joints of the body to align the parts back into its appropriate position. Chiropractors...Everybody loves the sound of music. But what is more pleasing and satisfying is the sound of good tunes coming out from a properly formatted device. As much as you like music, you don’t want to get stuck...
- Latest Articles
- Latest ArticlesOne of the growing problems in United States is the rodent infestation that has affected the lives of many people. When you feel that there are any signs of any rodent infestation in your home, it becomes...Students who come from different countries face many challenges, especially in cities like Melbourne. Moreover, it gets even more challenging if they are stranger to such places. However, due to technological...Have you heard about Empower Network? If no… I’ll explain you about it in this post & tell you how it is beneficial for moms. Empower Network is basically an affiliate marketing in which people sell...Have you ever got trouble with file transfer via email when you send big files? With the help of email service, you can not send big files to your clients because of its file size limitation. Very few email...This is a form of loan that can be availed within a day or in 24 hours. Almost every financial institute now offers this loan most of the time with the intention to help someone in times of financial hitch....