The fundamental goal for the design of a crushing plant is an installation that meets the required production requirements, operates at competitive cost, complies with today's tough environmental regulations, and can be built at a reasonable price despite the rising costs of equipment, energy and construction labor. These can include the owner's engineering staff, safety personnel, operations and maintenance personnel, equipment manufacturers, and the engineering consultant. Ideally, the consultant combines his knowledge and experience with an understanding of all parties' needs, to provide a balanced, workable, safe and economic plant design.
Direct Costs. The largest primary gyratory crushers cost US $2 million or more, while overall crushing plant costs can be as high as $18 million. It's necessary therefore to estimate crusher installation costs based on equipment costs plus the following direct costs, including construction contractor indirects: Earthworks, Mechanical, Concrete, Electrical, Structural steel, Instrumentation, Architectural Indirect Costs. Indirect costs can fall within a range of 40 to 60% of the direct costs, and include: Construction indirects, Startup and commissioning, Construction equipment, Freight, Spare parts/first fill, Taxes/duties, Engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM), Owner's costs (relocation, hiring and training personnel, permits, licensing fees, etc).
In addition to the above, a contingency to cover unforeseen costs will be in the range of 10 to 20% of the sum of the direct and indirect costs. The designer must be aware of the project-specific costs of all such elements, so that he can monitor costs and promote methods of reducing total installation costs. In some locations, for example, labor and material costs could make a gabion wall more expensive than a poured concrete wall, which has minimal structural backfill.
Ore characteristics are a critical element in both crusher selection and plant design. Dry ores require greater provisions for dust suppression and collection, including dust enclosures around screens, sealing on conveyor skirts, and vacuum and wash-down systems. Wet, sticky ores can plug chutes, reduce surge capacity, and decrease the live storage capacity of bins and silos. To address this problem, chutes must be easily accessible for clean-up, and large feeder openings must be provided for bins, silos and tunnels. If it is practical to obtain representative ore samples, it is prudent to have testwork conducted to establish ore flow properties, which will influence design parameters.
At virtually all mines, ore characteristics change over time, and it can be costly to 'design in' the optimal flexibility required to handle such changes. Some owners stipulate that initial capital investment be kept to a minimum, with design modifications paid for out of the operating budget. This is not always easy to achieve.
Safety and Environment
Safety must be designed into all mining facilities. North American mines must comply with local and national regulations such as OSHA, MSHA, the Mines Act and the WCB. The modern plant includes safety guards around all moving equipment, and emergency pull-cords on both sides of any conveyors with personnel access. The maintenance department and safety officer must keep these safeguards in working order. Ongoing safety training of plant personnel is imperative, and is considered to be one of the most vital and monitored feature of most mining operations.
Dust emissions must comply with the latest regulations for the jurisdiction. Designers must make provisions for the installation of dust abatement, suppression or collection equipment. Spillages from feeders, chutes and conveyors must be minimized. Spill collection can be 'designed in' on feeder installations; chute designs can minimize spillage at receiving and discharge points; and conveyor belts can be widened to be more forgiving (e.g., skirting internal back-to-back width can be reduced to allow the belt more side travel.) Skirting should be extended a minimum of three belt widths past the load point. Rules for conveyor and load point design should be used for guidance only, with transfers custom-designed to suit a particular project. It goes without saying that clean plants have lower operating costs. Crushers, screens and dust-collection fans all contribute to high noise levels. Air-cooled lubrication systems are not only noisy, but often leak oil. Well-balanced, choke-fed crushers, dustenclosed screens and dust collector fans with silencers can keep noise levels under control. Recirculating water can be used to cool crusher lubrication systems.
As the professional manufacturer of complete sets of mining machinery, such as Mobile crushing station, Henan Hongxing is always doing the best in products and service.
If you're interested in mining machinery such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, ball mill, Raymond mill, snad maker, we believe that Henan Hongxing Machinery is your nice choice.
- Author Articles
- More From This AuthorStrong global demand for minerals and other commodities promises to fuel demand for mining equipment for years to come. This is positive news for domestic steel suppliers, not just because of the large...According to introducing, xinjiang tianshan metallogenic belt in xinjiang is one of the three major metallogenic belt, has found that all kinds of mineral resources. According to relevant for...Rising demand for such vehicles indicates rapidly increasing activity in the mining sector. 'Since early 2010, the mining sector has steadily gathered momentum and this has had a positive impact on the...From mining machinery industry 2000 ~ 2009 fixed assets steady growth can explain, mining machinery industry return on capital is higher than the average return on assets, is worth the investment of social...It is because of China machinery industry in general are still in the development stage in vulgar, machinery industry unit product comprehensive energy consumption than to the high number of developed...
- Related Articles
- Related ArticlesElectronics have taken over our world. Today both children and adults do not like simple toys but prefer contraptions that are greatly complicated. The electronic toys in the market today come with...A bathroom is one of the most important places in our house especially when the time comes for estimating its resale value. In Chicago, where the real estate market is in boom, any house or complex is hot ...IBS or irritable bowel syndrome is a very common colon disorder. Also known as spastic colon, this disease affects approximately 15% of the population in North America. Though it is alright to have digestive...With smartphones running over the desktop computer and laptop pc lifestyle, it's anticipated that it will be replaced by these smartphones. Smartphones alone are not the most important to the accomplishments...Each of us has to admit that the watch we are wearing is the ideal combination of our personality, novelty, style, our way of thinking, and the way of living; in simple words our watch is the expression of our...
- Latest Articles
- Latest ArticlesThis will ensure that patients will be able to receive the appropriate care, at the appropriate site, by the appropriate provider at the appropriate time – all this will be done avoiding duplication and...G L Bajaj Institute of Technology & Management the 6th Institute established under the prestigious banner of R.K Group of Institutions. The institute is approved by All India Council for ...If you are planning to have an LLC (limited liability company), you are liable for some legal features for operational and income tax efficacies. An LLC can be owned by a single or more than one person as a...Jewelry is an important accessory to your look.And the bridesmaids aged from eight to within their 20s wore matching red princess dresses and tiaras.I additionally accustomed to compare myself to simply...The betting system about which we are going to explain here is based on the fact that there are some teams which are more consistently predictable than other teams and there are not like that these are ...