Lysosomes use their enzymes to recycle the different organelles of the cell, 13 including them, digesting them and releasing their components in the cytosol. This process is called autophagy , and cell digests its own structures that are not necessary. The material is encompassed by vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus forming an autophagosome. By joining forms a primary lysosome autofagolisosoma and follows the same process as in the previous case.
In endocytosis the materials are collected from outside the cell and encompassed by endocytosis from the plasma membrane, which forms a phagosome . The lysosome is attached to the phagosome forming a phagolysosome and pour its contents into this, degrading substances phagosome. Once hydrolyzed usable molecules pass into the cell to enter metabolic pathways , and it is not necessary for the cell is disposed outside this by exocytosis .
Lysosomal enzymes also spill their outward from the cell (exocytosis) to degrade also other materials. In view of their functions, their presence is high in white blood cells , because these have the function to degrade invading bodies.
The vacuole is a sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane. In the plant cell , the vacuole is a single and larger, whereas the animal cell , a number and small size. The membrane that surrounds called tonoplast. The plant cell vacuole is a solution of mineral salts , sugars , amino acids and sometimes pigments such as anthocyanin .
The plant vacuole has several functions:
The sugars and amino acids can act as a temporary storage of food.
Anthocyanins are pigment that gives color to the petals .
Usually contain enzymes and can take the function of lysosomes.
The role of vacuoles in animal cells is to act as a place to store protein, 14 these proteins are stored for later use, or rather for export outside the cell through the process of exocytosis. In this process, the vacuoles fuse with the membrane and its contents are transferred out of the cell. The vacuole can additionally be used for the process of endocytosis, the process consists in transporting materials outside of the cell, which are unable to pass through the membrane into the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum is a complex system and set of interconnected membranes, 16 which form a cytoplasmic skeleton. They form an extensive system of canals and held together to ribosomes. Its form may vary, because its nature depends on the arrangement of cells, which can be compressed or loosely organized.
Is a set of closed cavities of very variable: flat sheets, vesicles or globular aspect winding tubes. They communicate each other and form a continuous network hyaloplasm separate by the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Consequently, the liquid contents of the cytoplasm is divided into two parts: the luminal space or cisternal contained within the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosolic space comprising the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum. 5
Its main functions include:
Circulation of substances are not released into the cytoplasm.
Serve as an area for chemical reactions.
Synthesis and transport of proteins produced by ribosomes attached to their membranes (RER only).
Glycosylation of proteins (RER only).
Production of lipids and steroids (REL only).
Provide a structural skeleton for maintaining cell shape.
When the membrane is surrounded by ribosomes, is called the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). 17 The RER its main function is protein synthesis, and it is precisely for this reason that it is common in growing cells or to secrete enzymes. 18 Similarly, a cell damage can be an increase in protein synthesis and that has RER formation, provided that proteins are needed to repair the damage.
The proteins are transformed and move to a region of the RER, the Golgi apparatus. In these bodies are synthesized also exclude proteins to macromolecules.
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