Job analysis is a process of collecting, analyzing information regarding job description, job specification, and not the person doing that job. Job description refers to roles and responsibilities included in that job whereas job specification refers to skills, abilities, and level of knowledge required for that job. Basic purpose of this is to find and document employment related activities.
Utilizing six sigma techniques to this process is very interesting thing. Six sigma is a way of creating excellence in organization through an application of continuous quality improvement. Till now six sigma is applied to various functions in organization, but not to job analysis.
As job analysis is an essential process of HRM department, six sigma fits best here. Job description is an identification of various job roles required in company, so there should be a proper differentiation among every type of job designation. To hire people with exact skills, abilities, knowledge, and experience job specification should be done properly.
Whenever jobs are analyzed, there might be change in internal structure, positions of earlier employees, flow of activities etc. Applying six sigma benefits organization to improve quality of work, reduce time, efforts and mistakes in process. A consistent but continuous approach is followed in organization. Applying six sigma process i.e. DMAIC for job analysis includes:
1. Define: It refers to setting goals and objectives. In this case, performance standards are set based on which actual results are to be evaluated. The inconsistencies in this process, which are to be corrected for achieving quality standard, are identified.
2. Measure: Data based on current process is collected and evaluated against set standards. Processes are converted into a flow chart which shows step by step actions. Flowcharts are used to identify instantly weakness present in process.
3. Analyze: Reasons for defects are identified. Cause and effect sequence is prepared and analyzed. Various analytical tools are used for it such as root cause analysis, cause-effect diagram, brainstorming, ABC analysis, fish bone diagram etc.
4. Improve: HR professionals try to improve on defects identified and analyzed in previous processes. Improvement in a sense that, they use various new ways, solutions, equipments and technology to reduce or cease defects.
5. Control: It includes controlling changes made during improvement stage. Control is especially required for implementation of new changes successfully. It helps to implement process of standardization in organization. Control is a long-term process that should continue further until future changes are made.
All the above steps in six sigma implementation needed to be applied for analyzing jobs so that HR department will achieve highest level of quality in various functions such as recruitment, selection, placement, training, compensation and performance appraisal of employees.To sum up, applying six sigma to analyze jobs requires great attention; so if possible, find help of experts for implementing DMAIC process.
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